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Development economics, globalism and inequality, the aid system, international financial institutions, education, Latin America, climate financing
Nancy Birdsall is president emeritus and a senior fellow at the Center for Global Development, a policy-oriented research institution that opened its doors in Washington, DC in October 2001. Prior to launching the center, Birdsall served for three years as senior associate and director of the Economic Reform Project at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Her work at Carnegie focused on issues of globalization and inequality, as well as on the reform of the international financial institutions.
From 1993 to 1998, Birdsall was executive vice-president of the Inter-American Development Bank, the largest of the regional development banks, where she oversaw a $30 billion public and private loan portfolio. Before joining the Inter-American Development Bank, she spent 14 years in research, policy, and management positions at the World Bank, most recently as director of the Policy Research Department.
Birdsall has been researching and writing on economic development issues for more than 25 years. Her most recent work focuses on the relationship between income distribution and economic growth and the role of regional public goods in development.
Birdsall is a member of the Board of Directors of the International Food Policy Research Council (IFPRI), of the African Population and Health Research Center, and of Mathematica. She has chaired the board of the International Center for Research on Women and has served on the boards of the Social Science Research Council, Overseas Development Council, and Accion. She has also served on committees and working groups of the National Academy of Sciences.
Birdsall holds a PhD in economics from Yale University and an MA in international relations from the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies.
Putting Education to Work in Egypt, by Nancy Birdsall and Lesley O'Connell. Prepared for Conference, Growth Beyond Stabilization: Prospects for Egypt, sponsored by The Egyptian Center for Economic Studies in collaboration with the Center for Institutional Reform and the Informal Sector, University of Maryland; the Harvard Institute for International Development, and the US Agency for International Development, February 3-4, 1999, Cairo, Egypt. March 1999.
"Intergenerational Mobility in Latin America: Deeper Markets and Better Schools Make a Difference," with Jere R. Behrman and Miguel Szekely, in New Markets, New Opportunities? Economic and Social Mobility in a Changing World (1999)
"The U.S. and the Social Challenge in Latin America: The New Agenda Needs New Instruments," with Nora Lustig and Lesley O'Connell, in The Search for Common Ground: U.S. National Interests and the Western Hemisphere in a New Century (W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1999)
"Deep Integration and Trade Agreements: Good for Developing Countries?" with Robert Z. Lawrence in Global Public Goods: International Cooperation in the 21st Century (Oxford University Press, 1999)
"No Tradeoff: Efficient Growth Via More Equal Human Capital Accumulation in Latin America," in Beyond Trade-Offs: Market Reforms and Equitable Growth in Latin America (1998)
"That Silly Inequality Debate," in Foreign Policy, May/June 2002
"Education in Latin America: Demand and Distribution are Factors that Matter," with Juan Luis Londoño and Lesley O'Connell in CEPAL Review 66, December 1998
"Life is Unfair: Inequality in the World," in Foreign Policy, Summer 1998
"Public Spending on Higher Education in Developing Countries: Too Much or Too Little?" in Economics of Education Review, 1996
Last week the World Bank Board closed the three-week window, announced in late August, for member countries to nominate candidates for the presidency of the World Bank. Jim Kim, the US nominee and incumbent since his election in 2012, was formally nominated by the United States at 12:01 a.m. at the opening bell, so to speak. He is the sole candidate in what appears to have been a kind of insider coup by the United States (called a “charade” in a World Bank Staff Association letter to its members) of the procedures agreed by World Bank members in 2011.
Join us for a discussion of the new report by CGD’s High Level Panel on the Future of Multilateral Development Banking, which offers a frank assessment of current MDB policies and practices, situating them in the context of new development challenges. For over five decades the multilateral development banks have combined financial heft and technical knowledge to support investments in post-conflict reconstruction, growth, and poverty reduction. However, the geo-economic landscape has changed dramatically in this century. There are new banks, and also new challenges that call for global collective action and financing of the sort the MDBs are well-suited to provide but have been handicapped in doing so effectively. How should the MDBs respond?
As Chair of the Board of the Center for Global Development, I am delighted to announce that, following a competitive international search, Masood Ahmed is to become the Center’s next president. He will succeed Nancy Birdsall who has been an outstanding founding president during CGD’s first fifteen years.
Please join us for a special event to mark CGD’s 15th anniversary, when IMF Managing Director Christine Lagarde will give a speech highlighting the critical role of global collaboration to address the issues facing low-income developing countries. Last year, the international community came together to agree on historic goals to drive development across the globe through 2030. Today those commitments are now even more urgent as the global economy faces serious challenges - low growth, weak commodity prices, financial market volatility, and geopolitical uncertainties. The implications for the poorest nations are stark.
The evidence is compelling that countries benefit from immigration, particularly if immigrants are already well-educated, working-age adults, as is the case with most of the Syrians fleeing war at home. Still, there are real economic, security, and political costs of hosting refugees when, as with the Syrians, the arrivals are sudden and substantial. Given those costs, how should we think about the obligations of potential host countries?
Theory and some empirical evidence suggest the two goals – reproductive rights for women and women’s economic empowerment – are connected: reproductive rights should strengthen women’s economic power. But our understanding of the magnitude of the possible connection and the nature of any causal link (vs. coevolution or reverse causation) in different times and places is limited. In this note we summarize what we know up to now and what more we could learn about that connection, and set out the data requirements and methodological challenges that face researchers and policymakers who want to better understand the relationship.
Nancy Birdsall argues that the concept of inclusive growth should go beyond the traditional emphasis on the poor (and the rest) and take into account changes in the size and economic command of the group conventionally defined as neither poor nor rich, that is, the middle class.
In 2009, Guyana created a Low Carbon Development Strategy to develop economically while keeping its entire forest intact, and signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Norway to receive performance-based payments in the tens of millions of dollars annually contingent upon holding nationwide deforestation to a near-zero rate. In mid-February, 2014, we visited Guyana as part of a three-country study to attempt to gain insights of value to the future expansion of performance-based payments in other countries and other sectors.
Many obstacles to development transcend national borders and therefore cannot be adequately addressed within a single country. These include issues such as drug resistance and other cross-border health risks, financial crises contagion, money laundering, water scarcity, fisheries collapse and, of course, climate change. Economists call efforts to address these problems Global Public Goods (GPGs). Like other public goods, funding for GPGs is chronically in short supply: of $125 billion in annual official development assistance (ODA ) only about $3 billion goes to GPGs.
Integration of the global economy has outpaced the ability of international institutions to address key market failures—inequality, volatility, and inadequate provision of global public goods—undermining the prospects for inclusive and sustainable growth, CGD president Nancy Birdsall said in an address to the UN General Assembly.
In the absence of an activist global political entity to address these issues, as national governments attempt to do within sovereign states, the growing number of people who are coming to regard themselves as global citizens should press their own governments to adopt policies that address these problems, domestically and internationally, she said.
Put the UN General Assembly on The Daily Show! Or Maybe Not? (Blog)
Global Citizens and the Global Economy (Speech)
“I am a US citizen by birth and a development economist by training. But with the globalization of everything—supply chains, Facebook, civil society, and more—I have felt more and more like a citizen of the world. I suspect that many of you feel much the same way,” Birdsall said.
The September 10 address was the focus of this year’s UN General Assembly session on the Millennium Development Goals, the UN-endorsed poverty-reduction targets that expire in 2015.
Birdsall made clear that market-driven growth has put the world on the winning side in the global war on poverty, creating opportunities for hundreds of millions of people to lift themselves out of poverty, and supporting rapid progress in many countries on the MDGs.
But, she added, “economic globalization has outpaced political globalization. We have a global economy without the equivalent at the global level of a state.”
For example, she said, unmanaged markets tend to exacerbate inequality, within and across nations, as those with the right assets—such as access to quality education—enjoy high and rising incomes while those who lack such assets fall further behind. Similarly, the gap between the richest and poorest nations has widened with globalization, she said.
Volatility, especially in global financial markets, can exacerbate inequality, she said. “In 2007 and 2008, we saw how the tightening of fuel and food markets led to price spikes that were particularly painful for importing countries that had relied on global trade of these products—and for poor households in those countries. Then at the end of 2008 came the collapse of financial markets around the world—with real effects on growth, jobs, and well-being everywhere, though thankfully not long-lasting in many developing countries.”
Even so, "the high public debt that follows government rescues of banks and other financial institutions crowds out private investment and job creation and reduces the fiscal space for spending on infrastructure, education, and health programs that benefit the poor and help build a middle class." Such crises also strip assets from the poor, sometimes with lifelong consequences, she said. For example, children pulled from school because of a family's financial hardship often do not return, even when markets have recovered.
The third problem with unmanaged markets, she said, is the inadequate provision of public goods, a problem that is most urgent and obvious at the global level in the lack of agreement to limit a global public bad, emissions of carbon and other heat-trapping gasses that are driving climate change.
“Just as local pollution control requires that a government entity imposes regulations or creates offsetting incentives through taxes or subsidies, global‐level control of greenhouse gas emissions is likely to require that an activist international community, including at the least the major polluter countries, impose controls or agree on incentives,” Birdsall said.
“Climate change is the biggest and most glaring example of a global problem that hits the poor people and countries hardest. By an unfortunate twist of fate, tropical countries that contributed least to the accumulation of gases are likely to suffer the worst declines in agricultural productivity, in precisely the sector where the poor within countries are heavily concentrated.”
“In the absence of corrective action at the global level, projected declines in agriculture in India are on the order of 30 percent in the next 70 years—and as much or worse in parts of Africa. Sea-level rise in Bangladesh, drought and floods, and the expanding reach of malaria and other diseases in many tropical areas will also hit those most vulnerable hardest.”
What to do? The first-best solution would in principle be an activist global polity, she said, one with the mandate from global citizens to set and enforce policies and practices that would reduce global inequality, deal with volatility, and ensure adequate provision of such global public goods as zero-carbon-emissions energy.
“But in fact the world is made up of sovereign nations—and it is within sovereign nations that democratic and representative systems of government are rooted. It is within nations that citizens of the world ... have the possibility and the responsibility to hold the governments of their own countries accountable for policies and practices that have impacts within and beyond their borders.”
She concluded her speech with a list of suggestions—many grounded in CGD research—for policies and practices that those who consider themselves global citizens should urge their governments to adopt.
Among these: for the United States to put a price on carbon emissions, and for the Europe and the United States to endorse governance reforms in the IMF and World Bank that would give the big emerging-market nations a larger stake—and thus to help these institutions become more effective in responding to global challenges (financial market volatility in the case of the IMF and inadequate provision of global public goods in the case of the World Bank).
She also offered suggestions for the rich and powerful individuals in the big emerging-market countries such as China, India, Brazil, and Indonesia, including protection of their own forests and investments in infrastructure, health, and education to enable people who remain poor in those countries to lift themselves out of poverty.
“All of us in this room are among the world’s rich, influential, and powerful. We are each responsible for holding our own countries accountable—for domestic policies that at the least do no harm elsewhere, and for our own countries’ support of multilateralism and international cooperation on global economic and financial challenges,” she said. “I do believe that more citizens of the world, particularly young citizens, are getting on board. Let us all join them.”
In our first podcast of the new year and my first podcast as new host, I speak with CGD's president Nancy Birdsall on her expectations for 2015 as they relate to global development. We cover growing inequality, the marquee moments for development in 2015, and Nancy makes the case for optimism on the post-2015 development agenda. Have a listen.
In this paper, Nancy Birdsall sets out basic information on the growing middle class in Latin America and the Caribbean and provides grounds for optimism that such expansion might reinforce the inclusive politics that sustain broadly shared growth.