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Summary of Studies Estimating Energy Access Requirements

3/30/16
* Assumes five individuals per household for household-level models.

Model

Estimate terminology

kWh/cap/year*

Methodology

Household needs

Goldemberg, et al. (1985)

Energy for basic human needs

8766 total; 3506 noncommercial

Incorporates direct electricity and fuel needed to meet basic human requirements, including direct residential and indirect commercial
consumption needs

Direct Residential: cooking, hot water, refrigeration, lights, TV, clothes washer; Indirect residential: transportation, manufacturing,
agriculture, mining/construction

Pasternak (2000)

Electricity threshold for maximum HDI

4000

Human Development Index is plotted against annual per-capita electricity consumption, value of consumption that maximizes HDI (at 0.9) set
as threshold

N/A

Pachauri and Spreng (2002)

Energy Poverty Line

4383

Aggregates energy consumption across urban and rural households, using Indian consumption data as basis, incorporating direct and indirect
consumption.

Lighting, cooking, hot water, refrigerator, radio, TV

Pachauri and Spreng (2004)

Energy Poverty Line

2360 (rural)

Breaks down estimates above for rural consumption

Chidebell- Emordi (2014)

Minimal energy poverty line

3068 (urban)

Survey data from Nigeria. Estimates requirements for basic household energy needs

Five light bulbs, a refrigerator, three fans, a television, a radio, a DVD player, an iron, a two-plate electric cooker, other tasks at
sunset

Sierra Club (2014)

Access to energy (Tier 2)

10

Projects energy efficiency improvements to household appliance usage in tiered model

General lighting, TV, fan

Prayas (2015)

Dignified living

2344

Multiple estimation approaches for the year 2031

N/A

IEA Standard

Modern energy access

100 urban; 50 rural

N/A

N/A

ESMAP

Annual consumption level for energy access (Tier 4)

250

Multi-tier matrix of energy services and appliances available at each level, multiplied by daily use estimates

Task lighting, general lighting, phone charging, radio, fan, television, food processing, washing machine, refrigerator, iron

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