Evidence shows that when women have the opportunity to serve as political leaders, governments are not only more inclusive but also perform better. Women politicians are shown to champion policies improving health services and education systems, and they serve as positive role models influencing girls’ career aspirations and educational attainment. But across the world, women’s rates of political leadership remain lower than men’s. What are the obstacles standing in the way of women’s equal political participation? And what can be done to overcome these obstacles?