The last several years have seen the development of many decision-support tools (“value frameworks”) for supporting policy and investment decisions. These tools make use of lots of numbers representing factors of undoubted importance in decision making, and they synthesise this information into a decision-relevant score or ranking or choice recommendation. Sometimes it is hard to trace how the numbers are combined; in other cases, although the relevant formulae are spelled out, it is hard to see why the numbers are combined in a particular way.
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